# The Statistical Analysis of Discrete Data

Analysis of Discrete Data SPSS Help

We assume the reader has a basic understanding of statistical concepts at least at an intermediate undergraduate level including regression and analysis of variance.

In addition, some basic knowledge of R is assumed. This book is most directly suitable for a one-semester applied advanced undergraduate or graduate course on categorical data analysis with a strong emphasis on the use of graphical methods to understand and explain data and results of analysis. A detailed outline of such a course, together with lecture notes and assignments, is available at Psychology , using this book as the main text.

## Statistical methods for analysing discrete and categorical data recorded in performance analysis.

Provides an accessible introduction to the major methods of categorical data analysis for data exploration, statistical testing, and statistical models. The emphasis throughout is on computing, visualizing, understanding, and communicating the results of these analyses. As opposed to more theoretical books, the goal here is to help the reader to translate theory into practical application, by providing skills and software tools for carrying out these methods.

The book is supported directly by the R packages vcd and vcdExtra , along with numerous other R packages. Each chapter contains a collection of lab exercises, which work through applications of some of the methods presented in that chapter. This makes the book more suitable for both self-study and classroom use.

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Building on what they learn, students solve a problem in context from a set of given data. In this unit students investigate a collection of scenarios involving discrete data. Various data measures are discussed with regard to their suitability for representing each set of data. This session looks at how small amounts of statistical data can be analysed.

Through three examples the importance of mean and range is discussed along with some of the pitfalls associated with statistical analysis. A batsman is to be chosen to represent his country. Selectors shortlist two players and study their last six scores:. Discuss with students the suitability of the two batsmen in terms of mean scores and consistency. They choose one to represent his country and give reason s for their choice.

A Goal Shoot is to be chosen to represent her country. Selectors shortlist three and study their last available scores:. Discuss with students the suitability of the three shooters in terms of the mean number of points for each player, their consistency, and the fact that less information is available for one of them.

Students choose one to represent her country and give reason s for their choice. A fullback is to be chosen to represent his country. Selectors shortlist three and have their statistics. Discuss with students the suitability of the three players and choose one to represent his country giving reason s for their choice.

tensorflow.embedded-vision.com/danby-countertop-lavavajillas-ddw496w-manual.php This session looks at how changes in small amounts of data affect mean, median, mode, range and inter-quartile range. Students are presented with the eight data sets relating to test scores for 11 students and asked to describe them qualitatively. In each case students then calculate the mean, mode if appropriate , median, range, quartiles and interquartile range and draw box and whisker plots. The test scores all lie between 0 and The data sets can be presented in numerical form, e. By choosing their own small data sets students investigate the effect of a adding a constant value to each item, b subtracting a constant value from each item, c doubling each item, d multiplying each item by a constant amount and e adding an outlier to a data set.

Students draw general conclusions about what they discover and discuss when such information might be useful. Students are shown seven cards labelled A to G with randomly placed dots on them. These cards will need to be prepared before hand.

Continuous Vs. Discrete Data

Students write down their estimates on the sheet provided. The cards A to E are then exposed and the results added to the table. These cards are included to 'set the scene' and establish the routine.

Apart from columns F and G, the remainder of the table is then completed. The inclusion of percentage errors is to show how they increase with the actual number of dots.

Someone who is good at estimating will have a percentage error that remains approximately constant. Only after a decision has been made on the number of dots on card F, based on a statistical analysis of students' estimates, is the card exposed and the dots counted. With a class size of 25 to 30, i. This session follows on from the last session with an analysis of the estimates for card G.