Preyer has boldly grappled with tech- nical problems in his opus 35, called Twenty Melodi- ous Pieces in the Form of foudes. The scheme is a good one, music being made as the student employs his fingers. The sixteenth study in this series attracts attention as a study in accentuation. These Preyer Studies should not be overlooked. Hans Schmitt is known for his investigations of the piano pedals and their artistic use.
He has written many studies. The Daily Exercises are useful, and his Preludes and Ex- ercises by Clementi and Hummel, freely adapted, are ingenious, to say the least. The same pedagogue's Exercises and Studies in Staccato Octave Playing [opus 24], two books complete in one volume, is a work that all teachers of the instrument are earnestly advised to examine.
As the author truthfully says, in the many thousands of pianoforte studies there are really few entirely devoted to octave playing. Here is a set that can precede Kullak's unique system. The entire preparatory ground is carefully gone over by Dfiring, from Studies in Touch to interlocking octaves.
The 6tudes which follow are valuable. The sixteenth, in B minor, contains as stiff work as may be found in the KuUak collection. A preface and two chapters prove that Dfiring had thought out carefully all the problems in this difficult branch of pianoforte playing. There are plenty of scale-passages, and the entire cast of the set suggests the technical rather than the aesthetic. Book I is the more difficult of the two. The same composer's Sixty-one Studies [opus i6] is presented in one volume complete.
This has earned a wide and deserved reputation. There is in this collection practically everything that a pianist has need ot as far as dementi's Gradus. And there are some studies in it more difficult than any of the great Italian's, notably the one in D flat, double sixths. If this be executed in tempo the pupil need not fear Chopin's in the same key and figuration, or Franz Bendel's 6tude H6roIque.
But this study of Schmitt's is an exception to the average difficulty of the set. About this time the pupil's proficiency in octave play- Low's ing might be exploited. Eight in number, these studies are melodious, brilliant, and technically admirable. Their careful study will undoubtedly produce accurate results. Bachmann's Art of Preluding is a series of pleasant experiments in various keys, of value in stimulating the tonal sense of the pupil. It is another of those indispensable works made only by German pedagogues. Again we must emphasize the happy condensation, the reduction to the barest practical outline of tech- nical necessities.
Handrock not only saves time, but builds up muscular agility and leads to complete dom- ination of the keyboard. August Spanuth's Exercises IN the preface to his valuable and practical Course of Preparatory Exercises for the Pianist's Daily Use, August Spanuth defines his collection as being in accord with the peculiarities of modern technique. This Course appeals to the brain as well as to the fingers of the student. Another and highly important point emphasized is the attention paid to the cultivation of the pupil's harmonic sense.
These exercises are well adapted for the development of skill in modulation. Every key is attacked, and for lazy brains and lazy fingers this is an admirable cor- rective. The pupil must think while he is playing Mr. Spanuth's ingenious finger studies. Part I he devotes to a variety of five-finger exercises.
B Tucker, L. Allegro di molto. Map of Romania Hilferink, N. Action is needed, but as greenhouse gases arise from everyday energy use, it is important that actions should address environmental concerns but not threaten standards of living or economic growth. Suite no.
Every digit is subjected to an exhaustive drilling, and all manners of touch are employed. In Part II the scales are considered, and the teacher wearied of the usual conventional treatment of this hackneyed form will be pleased at the editor's fund of ingenuity in the avoid- ance of any patterning after average methods.
Double notes also come in for careful treatment.
It is most comprehensive and thorough. The number and variety of figures in this section make the volume an excellent preparation to the Tausig Daily Studies, and it is quite as modern. These Preparatory Studies offer material for the beginner, and the accomplished pianist may also find in them food for tiaily study. WHETHER the pupil has played three or four years — probably the latter — depends on mental calibre and muscular gifts.
But he or she has now reached the more pleasant part of piano study. The purely technical becomes further divorced from the musical — the 6tudes begin to approach the emotional, the aesthetic side of the art ; while the finger exercises, the muscular problems, are considered as special studies, and mainly in separate volumes.
The third period may begin with Schmitt's opus i6 and cover the Cramer Studies — here not fingers but brains count ; or the period may date from dementi's Preludes to the third book of Lebert and Stark — if the rather harassing discipline be strictly pursued. It is sufficient if the teacher rigor- ously watches the temperament of the pupil and en- deavors to discern its drift.
If there is too great a tendency toward the modern romantic school, it should be sternly offset by a severe course of the classic. If the easier pieces of Chopin are given, they should be accompanied by Clementi and Bach in their most drastic forms. It is hardly necessary to suggest to the eclectic-minded teacher that Bach. Haydn, Mozart and Mendelssohn should go hand in hand with these various studies. Clementi Preludes Moscheles Alex. This col- lection of little pieces was always on Chopin's piano, and Karasowski relates that the performance of one of them — in A flat — was the invariable test of a new pupil's ability.
That they serve as a means of becom- ing acquainted with the Clementi of the Gradus, is not their only claim on our sympathies : they are a quite complete, if a brief, crystallization of Clementi's happy knack in figure and passage making. And their variety is great.
This particular edition should be in the hands of every teacher and pupil. It is unique in its way. The Moscheles Preludes are something of the same musical complexion as the Clementi, though much more modern in their musical health and gener- ally solid style. It is needless to add, that Moscheles must be first approached in these Preludes. Follow these with the second volume of Lambert's Course of Studies.
They form an easy transition to Heller. WE have now reached the Heller Studies, studies praised by generations of teachers, and studies that have proved an antidote to Teutonic scholastic dryness and Gallic frivolity in the domain of piano music. All pupils, sometime or other in their career, should study Stephen Heller.
A contemporary of Chopin, an exquisite pianist, only the greater genius of the Pole overshadowed his delightful talents. The Art of Phrasing is celebrated. It is really a rosary of poetic imagin- ings, each an individual musical pearl. These twenty- six studies should be minutely studied, so should opus 45, opus 46 and opus There is no particular technical order observed in these various sets. Some are more difficult than others ; but the chief thing is the musical idea. Interpretation, in the best sense, is now the aim of the student.
Technical proficiency and its attainment should never be lost sight of ; yet always as a medium, not as a finality. The studies for rhythm and expression, opus , are very helpful in their way. WE have reserved the thirteen volumes of Czerny's Studies for this section, though several of them belong to the first and second Periods.
It is convenient to deal with the school as an entirety, and then Czerny and Heller do not make such dissimilar running-mates as would appear at first sight. The dreaminess of Heller is corrected by the practical Czerny, who was a man absolutely devoid of musical moods. Czerny knew exactly what he wanted, and literally built his studies about the human hand. There may be too many of them in these days of condensation, yet the most prejudiced opponent of the Viennese teacher is fain to admit his genius in the construction of useful passages.
Begin with the Practical Method for Begin- ners [opus ], and proceed systematically until the last page of the School of the Virtuoso has been reached — the multiplicity of figures is bewildering, and always of value.
This [opus ] belongs to the second period ; so does opus , Practical Five-finger Exercises". Buonamici of Florence has edited opus , short exercises, that are invaluable. We will not dwell upon the School of Velocity [opus ], which has been the bread and butter of countless pupils — not always relished, either.