A legendary figure even in his own time, he was admired by his followers for his integrity, his self-mastery, his profound philosophical insight, and his great argumentative skill. He was the first Greek philosopher to seriously explore questions of ethics. Socrates professed not to teach anything and indeed not to know anything important but only to seek answers to urgent human questions e.
His style of philosophizing was to engage in public conversations about some human excellence and, through skillful questioning, to show that his interlocutors did not know what they were talking about. Socrates wrote nothing. Socrates was widely hated in Athens, mainly because he regularly embarrassed people by making them appear ignorant and foolish.
God In Greek Philosophy To The Time Of Socrates [Roy Kenneth Hack] on solxoudyssettki.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This scarce antiquarian book is a. Thales of Miletus, commonly known as the first philosopher in this western world, said that Water was the cause and source of all things. He also said that all.
He was accordingly convicted and sentenced to death by poison. Socrates could have saved himself. He chose to go to trial rather than enter voluntary exile. In his defense speech, he rebutted some but not all elements of the charges and famously declared that "the unexamined life is not worth living. He finally rejected an offer of escape as inconsistent with his commitment never to do wrong escaping would show disrespect for the laws and harm the reputations of his family and friends.
Socrates was a widely recognized and controversial figure in his native Athens, so much so that he was frequently mocked in the plays of comic dramatists.
The Clouds of Aristophanes , produced in , is the best-known example. Although Socrates himself wrote nothing, he is depicted in conversation in compositions by a small circle of his admirers— Plato and Xenophon first among them. He is portrayed in these works as a man of great insight, integrity , self-mastery, and argumentative skill. The impact of his life was all the greater because of the way in which it ended: at age 70, he was brought to trial on a charge of impiety and sentenced to death by poisoning the poison probably being hemlock by a jury of his fellow citizens.
Its powerful advocacy of the examined life and its condemnation of Athenian democracy have made it one of the central documents of Western thought and culture. While Socrates was alive, he was, as noted, the object of comic ridicule, but most of the plays that make reference to him are entirely lost or exist only in fragmentary form— Clouds being the chief exception.
This aspect of the trial will be discussed more fully below. His interlocutors in these typically adversarial exchanges included people he happened to meet, devoted followers, prominent political figures, and leading thinkers of the day.
But those composed by Plato and Xenophon survive in their entirety. He coined the famous phrase "Man is the measure of all things. This seems like a vague claim, but it was quite unorthodox and dangerous at the time: placing men, not gods, at the center of value judgments. As proof of just how dangerous this attitude was perceived, Protagoras was branded with impiety by Athenians and banished while all his works were collected and burnt.
Thus, what little we know about comes from others. Diogenes Laertius reported that Protagoras also said:.
That's a good motto for agnostic atheism, but it remains an insight that few people even today can accept. Aristophanes c. Curiously enough for a critic of religion , Aristophanes was noted for his conservatism.
At one point he is quoted as saying:. Aristophanes was known for his satire, and this might be a satirical comment on all those who claim to have a god speaking through them. Another comment is more clearly critical and perhaps one of the earliest " burden of proof " arguments:.
You can hear atheists today, over two millennia later, asking the same questions and getting the same silence as an answer. Aristotle BCE was a Greek philosopher and scientist who shares with Plato and Socrates the distinction of being the most famous of ancient philosophers. In his Metaphysics , Aristotle argued for the existence of a divine being, described as the Prime Mover, who is responsible for the unity and purposefulness of nature.
Aristotle is on this list, however, because he was also quite skeptical and critical of more traditional ideas of gods:.
So while Aristotle was by no means an "atheist" in the strictest sense, he was not a "theist" in the traditional sense — and not even in what today would be called the "traditional" sense. Aristotle's theism is closer to a deistic sort of theism which was popular during the Enlightenment and which most orthodox, traditionalist Christians today would regard as little different from atheism.
On a purely practical level, it probably isn't. Diogenes of Sinope ? Practical good was the goal of Diogenes' philosophy and he did not hide his contempt for literature and the fine arts. For example, he laughed at men of letters for a reading of the sufferings of Odysseus while neglecting their own. This disdain carried right over to religion which, for Diogenes of Sinope, had no apparent relevance to daily life:.
This contempt for religion and gods is shared by many atheists today. Indeed, it's hard to describe this contempt as any less harsh than the criticism of religion which so-called " New Atheists " express today.
Epicurus BCE was a Greek philosopher who founded the school of thought called, appropriately enough, Epicureanism. The essential doctrine of Epicureanism is that pleasure is the supreme good and goal of human life.
Intellectual pleasures are placed above sensual ones. True happiness, Epicurus taught, is the serenity resulting from the conquest of fear of the gods, of death, and of the afterlife.