Analysis and Metaphysics: An Introduction to Philosophy

Metaphysics
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Among the distinctive features of his exposition are the displacement of an older, reductive conception of philosophical method in favor of elucidating the interconnections between the complex but irreducible notions which form the basic structure of our thinking; and the demonstration that the three traditionally distinguished departments of metaphysics, epistemology, and logic are but three aspects of one unified enquiry.

Strawson has produced an elegant work that will be invaluable to students and stimulating for professional philosophers and general readers alike. Strawson in 20th Century Philosophy. Philosophy, General Works. Edit this record. Mark as duplicate. Find it on Scholar. Request removal from index. Revision history. Google Books no proxy Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server Configure custom proxy use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy.

by Strawson, P. F

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An Introduction to Metaphysics

The Contemporary Significance of Confucianism. Peter J. On Correspondence. Kamminga - unknown. How Bad Is Rape? Baber - - Hypatia 2 2 Monaghan - - Metaphysica 11 1 Instead, the logical positivists adopted an emotivist theory, which was that value judgments expressed the attitude of the speaker. For example, in this view, saying, "Killing is wrong", is equivalent to saying, "Boo to murder", or saying the word "murder" with a particular tone of disapproval. While non-cognitivism was generally accepted by analytic philosophers, emotivism had many deficiencies, and evolved into more sophisticated non-cognitivist theories such as the expressivism of Charles Stevenson , and the universal prescriptivism of R.

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Hare , which was based on J. Austin's philosophy of speech acts. These theories were not without their critics. Philippa Foot contributed several essays attacking all these theories. Perhaps the most influential being Elizabeth Anscombe , whose monograph Intention was called by Donald Davidson "the most important treatment of action since Aristotle".

The first half of the 20th century was marked by skepticism toward, and neglect of, normative ethics. Related subjects, such as social and political philosophy, aesthetics, and philosophy of history , became only marginal topics of English-language philosophy during this period. During this time, utilitarianism was the only non-skeptical type of ethics to remain popular.

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However, as the influence of logical positivism began to decrease mid-century, analytic philosophers had renewed interest in ethics. Anscombe 's " Modern Moral Philosophy " sparked a revival of Aristotle 's virtue ethical approach and John Rawls 's A Theory of Justice restored interest in Kantian ethical philosophy. Today, contemporary normative ethics is dominated by three schools: utilitarianism , virtue ethics, and deontology.

A significant feature of analytic philosophy since approximately has been the emergence of applied ethics β€”an interest in the application of moral principles to specific practical issues. The philosophers following this orientation view ethics as involving humanistic values, which involve practical implications and applications in the way people interact and lead their lives socially.

Topics of special interest for applied ethics include environmental issues , animal rights , and the many challenges created by advancing medical science. As with the study of ethics, early analytic philosophy tended to avoid the study of philosophy of religion , largely dismissing as per the logical positivists the subject as part of metaphysics and therefore meaningless.

Plantinga, Mackie and Flew debated the logical validity of the free will defense as a way to solve the problem of evil. Adams worked on the relationship of faith and morality. Phillips , among others. The name "contemplative philosophy" was first coined by D. Phillips in Philosophy's Cool Place , which rests on an interpretation of a passage from Wittgenstein's "Culture and Value.

Phillips became two of the most prominent philosophers on Wittgenstein's philosophy of religion. Current analytic political philosophy owes much to John Rawls , who in a series of papers from the s onward most notably "Two Concepts of Rules" and "Justice as Fairness" and his book A Theory of Justice , produced a sophisticated defence of a generally liberal egalitarian account of distributive justice.

This was followed soon by Rawls's colleague Robert Nozick 's book Anarchy, State, and Utopia , a defence of free-market libertarianism. Isaiah Berlin also had a lasting influence on both analytic political philosophy and Liberalism with his lecture the Two Concepts of Liberty.

During recent decades there have also been several critiques of liberalism, including the feminist critiques of Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin , the communitarian critiques of Michael Sandel and Alasdair MacIntyre although neither of them endorses the term , and the multiculturalist critiques of Amy Gutmann and Charles Taylor.

Consequentialist libertarianism also derives from the analytic tradition. Another development of political philosophy was the emergence of the school of analytical Marxism.

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Perhaps the most influential being Elizabeth Anscombe , whose monograph Intention was called by Donald Davidson "the most important treatment of action since Aristotle". Remember me Forgot password? First, we lack a proper explanation as to why absolutely anything can be the reference of a subject expression but only universals can be what predicates express. Rorty, Richard a Consequences of Pragmatism Essays: β€” But almost as routinely we are hoodwinked. Pitcher ed.

Members of this school seek to apply techniques of analytic philosophy modern social science such as rational choice theory to clarify the theories of Karl Marx and his successors. The best-known member of this school is G. Cohen , whose work, Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence , is generally considered to represent the genesis of this school.

In that book, Cohen used logical and linguistic analysis to clarify and defend Marx's materialist conception of history. The work of these later philosophers have furthered Cohen's work by bringing to bear modern social science methods, such as rational choice theory, to supplement Cohen's use of analytic philosophical techniques in the interpretation of Marxian theory. Cohen himself would later engage directly with Rawlsian political philosophy to advance a socialist theory of justice that contrasts with both traditional Marxism and the theories advanced by Rawls and Nozick.

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In particular, he indicates Marx's principle of from each according to his ability, to each according to his need. Communitarians such as Alasdair MacIntyre , Charles Taylor , Michael Walzer , and Michael Sandel advance a critique of Liberalism that uses analytic techniques to isolate the main assumptions of Liberal individualists, such as Rawls, and then challenges these assumptions. In particular, Communitarians challenge the Liberal assumption that the individual can be considered as fully autonomous from the community in which he lives and is brought up.

Instead, they argue for a conception of the individual that emphasizes the role that the community plays in forming his or her values, thought processes and opinions. One striking difference with respect to early analytic philosophy was the revival of metaphysical theorizing during the second half of the 20th century.

An Introduction to Metaphysics

Philosophers such as David Kellogg Lewis and David Armstrong developed elaborate theories on a range of topics such as universals, causation, possibility and necessity, and abstract objects. Among the developments that resulted in the revival of metaphysical theorizing were Quine 's attack on the analytic-synthetic distinction , which was generally considered to weaken Carnap 's distinction between existence questions internal to a framework and those external to it.

Metaphysics remains a fertile topic of research, having recovered from the attacks of A. Ayer and the logical positivists.

Introduction to Philosophy - Metaphysics (Module 3)

Although many discussions are continuations of old ones from previous decades and centuries, the debate remains active. The philosophy of fiction, the problem of empty names, and the debate over existence's status as a property have all become major concerns, while perennial issues such as free will, possible worlds, and the philosophy of time have been revived. Science has also had an increasingly significant role in metaphysics. The theory of special relativity has had a profound effect on the philosophy of time, and quantum physics is routinely discussed in the free will debate.

Philosophy of language is a topic that has decreased during the last four decades, as evidenced by the fact that few major philosophers today treat it as a primary research topic. Indeed, while the debate remains fierce, it is still strongly influenced by those authors from the first half of the century: Gottlob Frege , Bertrand Russell , Ludwig Wittgenstein , J. Austin , Alfred Tarski , and W. In Saul Kripke 's publication Naming and Necessity , he argued influentially that flaws in common theories of proper names are indicative of larger misunderstandings of the metaphysics of necessity and possibility.

By wedding the techniques of modal logic to a causal theory of reference, Kripke was widely regarded as reviving theories of essence and identity as respectable topics of philosophical discussion. Reacting against both the verificationism of the logical positivists as well as the critiques of the philosopher of science Karl Popper , who had suggested the falsifiability criterion on which to judge the demarcation between science and non-science, discussions of philosophy of science during the last 40 years were dominated by social constructivist and cognitive relativist theories of science.

Thomas Samuel Kuhn with his formulation of paradigm shifts and Paul Feyerabend with his epistemological anarchism are significant for these discussions. A large portion of current epistemological research is intended to resolve the problems that Gettier's examples presented to the traditional justified true belief model of knowledge, including developing theories of justification in order to deal with Gettier's examples, or giving alternatives to the justified true belief model.

Other and related topics of contemporary research include debates between internalism and externalism , [56] basic knowledge, the nature of evidence , the value of knowledge, epistemic luck , virtue epistemology , the role of intuitions in justification, and treating knowledge as a primitive concept.

As a result of attacks on the traditional aesthetic notions of beauty and sublimity from post-modern thinkers, analytic philosophers were slow to consider art and aesthetic judgment. Susanne Langer [57] and Nelson Goodman [58] addressed these problems in an analytic style during the s and s. Since Goodman, aesthetics as a discipline for analytic philosophers has flourished.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Philosophy Plato Kant Nietzsche. Buddha Confucius Averroes. Main article: Linguistic philosophy. Main article: Logical positivism. Main article: Ordinary language philosophy. Main article: Metaphysics. Main article: Philosophy of language.